What is Diabetes?

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Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that are characterised by an increase in blood (glucose) sugar levels. The cause lies in the fact that the pancreas does not produce the hormone insulin correctly or because the body uses the insulin incorrectly. Insulin is an essential hormone that everybody, whether diabetic or not, requires in varying amounts throughout the 24 hours in a day.

Types of diabetes

  • Type 1 (T1D). Represents between 5% and 10% of all cases of diabetes diagnosed. It is characterised by deficient insulin production and must always be treated by administering insulin.
  • Type 2 (T2D). Represents 80–90% of all cases. It is characterised by the fact that the body does not use its own insulin correctly and is very strongly associated with being overweight and a sedentary lifestyle.
  • Gestational. This is identified by an increase in sugar levels (hyperglycaemia) that arises during pregnancy.
  • Monogenic. This type represents 1–2% of all cases. The main subtype of monogenic diabetes is MODY diabetes (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young).
  • Drug-related diabetes. The medicines most typically associated with diabetes are corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. 
  • Diabetes due to partial or total removal of the pancreas.

Diabetes in numbers in the world

Diabetes affects millions of people around the world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a rapid increase in weight, obesity and physical inactivity. A total of 415 million people worldwide have diabetes. Diabetes is expected to become the seventh largest global cause of death by 2040 (www.diabetesatlas.org 7th Edition 2015).

Diabetes in numbers in Spain

According to the study Di@bet.es, 13.8% of the Spanish population aged over 18 have type 2 diabetes which equates to over 5.3 million people. Of this group, almost 3 million have been diagnosed, while a further 2.3 million are unaware they have the disease. Delays in diagnosing diabetes mean that half of all patients have already developed a complication, because it can affect other organs such as the kidneys, eyes, heart or the nervous system, when it is finally detected. 

There are estimated to be around 600,000 people with diabetes in Catalonia. According to the 2015 Health Survey of Catalonia (ESCA), diabetes affects 8.4% of the population aged over 15 years. The incidence increases with age in both sexes.

Substantiated information by:
Enric EsmatjesEndocrinologist — Endocrinology DepartmentMargarida JansàNurse expert in Diabetes and Therapeutic Education — Endocrinology DepartmentDaría RocaNurse expert in Diabetes and Therapeutic Education — Endocrinology DepartmentMercè VidalNurse expert in Diabetes and Therapeutic Education — Endocrinology DepartmentIrene VinagreEndocrinologist — Endocrinology Department

Published: 20 February 2018
Updated: 20 February 2018

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