The signs and symptoms caused by cancer vary according to the part of the body affected and they are often nonspecific.
The appearance of the following signs or symptoms does not mean an individual has cancer. If a person has any of these symptoms and they persist over time or worsen, they should discuss them with their healthcare professionals.
Changes in weight, for example, unintentional weight gain or loss.
Persistent night sweats or fever with no apparent cause.
Fatigue or tiredness that does not improve with rest.
Persistent joint or muscle pain with no apparent cause.
Changes to the skin such as yellowish colouration (jaundice), darkening (hyperpigmentation) or reddening of the skin (erythema), sores that do not cure or changes to pre-existing moles or warts.
A lump, hardening or swelling that can be felt underneath the skin.
Changes to bladder or bowel emptying habits.
Persistent cough or difficulty breathing.
Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating.
Unusual bleeding (vaginal, in excrement, when coughing, from a nipple) or bruising with no apparent cause.
These are the most common signs and symptoms, but there are several more that are not included here. If you notice any significant change, especially if it is long-lasting or it worsens, you should tell your healthcare team. The early detection of cancer is the most effective treatment.