Causes of Asthma
Environmental stimulants. In asthma, the mucosa of the bronchi is inflamed and narrowed, restricting the passage of air, which is known as bronchial hyper-reactivity. It can be produced by environmental stimulants, such as: cold air, exercise, allergens, respiratory infections, emotional stress, tobacco smoke, environmental contamination, irritant chemical products, among others.
Genetic factors. Along with the environmental factors, they induce and predispose to the appearance of the disease.
The mechanisms that cause the bronchial inflammation are very complex, since different cells and inflammatory mediators are involved, and are the subject of continuous scientific research.
Risk factors of Asthma
The risk of suffering asthma is determined by the interaction between genetic predisposition, the factors that modify the development of the individual, before birth or during infancy, and the environmental exposure to inhaled particles.
Some known risk factors are:
To have a history of asthma in a close relative, such as father, mother or brothers and sisters.
Smoking by the mother during pregnancy.
Born prematurely or low weight.
To have certain respiratory viral infections during the first months or years of life.
To have “whistles” or wheezing in the first years of life.
To have a predisposition to present with allergies, which is called “atopy”; such as rhinitis, dermatitis, and allergic conjunctivitis.
To be a passive smoker.
To live in urban and industrialised areas, especially in places that have a high level of environmental contamination.
Exposure to chemical products (including, agricultural, hairdressing, or construction) in the work environment.
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